Four-stage counting method for young children
Step 1: Physical counting The thinking of a 3-year-old child is at the original level, and the specific image thinking is placed on the floor. At this time, counting must rely on physical objects.
When my grandson Yuanyuan started to learn counting, I often used fruits and other real objects for teaching.
I put 3 apples and 5 apples in a pile, and asked him how many of them were, and how few of them?
Yuanyuan can accurately distinguish between a pile of 5 and a pile of 3, but it is not clear how much the two apples differ.
I first taught him to count two piles of apples and then compare them. He could take out the two more apples and say that there were two more.
I asked him to put two piles of apples together and count them together, and he counted them one by one, saying eight.
I told him to take one of them for grandma and asked how many were left.
He counted them one by one and said that there were 7 left.
Through this method, Yuan Yuan learned to calculate the number within 10 in the process of number physical measurement.
Step 2: Counting the Substitute After the child learns to count the real thing, the independence of thinking begins to sprout, and gradually relies on the physical prototype when counting, and then the substitute counting training can be performed.
Without a physical prototype, I asked Yuan Yuan: “4 apples plus 3, how many in total?
“I took out the blocks and let him calculate. He counted 4 blocks instead of 4 apples, and then 3 blocks instead of 3 apples. Then he put the two stacked blocks together and counted them, telling me it was 7Apples.
In this way, Yuanyuan can always use bricks and other substitutes to count what kind of objects are always counted.
Step 3: After symbolic counting learns physical counting and surrogate counting, children can further increase their dependence on physical objects, and use the physical representations and counting tools reproduced in their heads to perform symbolic counting.
Symbolic counting is the transition from alternative counting to abstract counting.
In teaching Yuanyuan’s abstract calculation of addition and subtraction within 10, I adopted two progressive methods: ◆ Finger counting tool: finger. After Yuanyuan learned to count with substitutes, I taught him to use his fingers.The first digit represents a number up to 10 to learn addition and subtraction up to 10.
At the beginning, Yuan Yuan is still in the counting stage. For example, when asked how many times 5 plus 3 equals, he will symbolize 5 fingers with one hand and 3 with the other hand, and then count down one by one to get the answer of 8.
Later, you can slowly develop to not count the fingers, you can immediately say the number when you see the fingers, and you can say the sum of the fingers indicated by two hands.
This symbolic counting improves the abstraction of the number in the child’s head, a step further than physical counting and surrogate counting.
◆ Comparison counting tool: The diagram first uses a piece of cardboard (the colors on the front and back are different) to make two identical ones, each representing 1?
10 step-shaped charts, then cut one of them into 10 to represent 1?
10 pieces of paper.
With these two small teaching aids, you can use the graphic comparison method to teach children to add or subtract within 10 years.
For example, ask 3 + 4 =?
Take out the piece of paper representing 4 and place it behind the position marked with 3. This will clearly grind the length of the piece of paper 3 + 4 and the size of the piece of paper marked 7 so that the child can say 3 + 4 = 7.
How about 8-2 =?
Just turn the paper block representing 2 and cover the end marked with 8. The child can clearly grind the length of the paper block 8-2 to be exactly the same as the paper block marked 6. The result is 6.
Step4: Counting the child’s abstraction Through the above three stages of learning, the parent has initially formed the original concepts of cardinality and number sequence. Parents still need to teach repeatedly to improve the abstraction of the original cardinality and number sequence concepts in the child’s mind, so that he can completely overcomeDependence on things, to obtain a higher degree of generalization and abstraction.
The child understands the actual number that each number within 10 represents and its own position in the sequence in order to perform an abstract count.
When Yuan Yuan was 4 years old, the actual number represented by the numbers within 5 was very clear.
I said 4, he can imitate 4 fingers at once, and can perform abstraction counting within 5 additions.
For example, I asked him: 2 + 3 =?
He doesn’t need to count and can answer 5 right away.
After such training, Yuan Yuan can fully calculate the addition and subtraction within 10 by the abstract count at the age of 4 and a half.